(According to modern biology, the total evolutionary history from the beginning of life to today has taken place since 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago, the amount of time which passed since the last universal ancestor of all living organisms as shown by geological dating.) In a lecture in 1869, Darwin's great advocate, Thomas H.Huxley, attacked Thomson's calculations, suggesting they appeared precise in themselves but were based on faulty assumptions.In the mid-18th century, the naturalist Mikhail Lomonosov suggested that Earth had been created separately from, and several hundred thousand years before, the rest of the universe. In 1779 the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment: He created a small globe that resembled Earth in composition and then measured its rate of cooling.This led him to estimate that Earth was about 75,000 years old.For biologists, even 100 million years seemed much too short to be plausible.In Darwin's theory of evolution, the process of random heritable variation with cumulative selection requires great durations of time.giving a lower limit for the age of the solar system.It is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and the meteorites.
In 1895, John Perry produced an age-of-Earth estimate of 2 to 3 billion years using a model of a convective mantle and thin crust.
After Henri Becquerel's initial discovery in 1896, Marie and Pierre Curie discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898; and in 1903, Pierre Curie and Albert Laborde announced that radium produces enough heat to melt its own weight in ice in less than an hour.
Geologists quickly realized that this upset the assumptions underlying most calculations of the age of Earth.
Kelvin stuck by his estimate of 100 million years, and later reduced it to about 20 million years.
The discovery of radioactivity introduced another factor in the calculation.