Predating on

It could also constitute a chase, stalking, or attack of prey.Thus predation is often, though not always, carnivory.This close living arrangement may be described by the term symbiosis, "living together", but unlike mutualism the association significantly reduces the fitness of the host.Parasitic organisms range from the macroscopic mistletoe, a parasitic plant, to microscopic internal parasites such as cholera.Other categories of consumption are herbivory (eating parts of plants), fungivory (eating parts of fungi), and detritivory (the consumption of dead organic material). For example, some parasites prey on their host and then lay their eggs on it, for their offspring to feed on it while it continues to live, or on its decaying corpse after it has died.

Predators are often highly specialized, such as to hunt only one species of prey.Selective pressures (coevolution) imposed on one another often leads to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.Ways of classifying predation include grouping by trophic level or diet, by specialization, and by the predator's interaction with prey. Two factors are considered here: how close the predator and prey (or host) are, and whether the prey is directly killed by the predator, where true predation and parasitoidism involve certain death.Some species however have looser associations with their hosts.Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) larvae may feed parasitically on only a single plant, or they may graze on several nearby plants.