The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).
The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.
His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.
His grandfather had served in several local political offices.
The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members.
It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
Upon his adoption, Octavius assumed his great-uncle's name Gaius Julius Caesar.
Roman citizens adopted into a new family usually retained their old nomen in cognomen form (e.g., Octavianus for one who had been an Octavius, Aemilianus for one who had been an Aemilius, etc.).
Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised.
Octavius only mentions his father's equestrian family briefly in his memoirs.